文章摘要
赵旭东,高诗怡.网络时代的共同性构建——以跨国语境中的球迷文化为例[J].民族学刊,2017,8(5):1-10, 93-96
网络时代的共同性构建——以跨国语境中的球迷文化为例
The Construction of Community in the Age of the Internet — Taking Transnational Football Fandom as a Case Study
  
DOI:10.3969/j.issn.1674-9391.2017.05.01
中文关键词: 跨国德迷  共同体  网络认同  网络时代  网络人类学
英文关键词: transnational German fandom  community  internet identity  the age of internet  anthropology of internet
基金项目:
作者单位
赵旭东 中国人民大学人类学研究所 
高诗怡 香港中文大学人类学系 
摘要点击次数: 238
全文下载次数: 276
中文摘要:
      人们何以成为共同体?当认同的边界跨越主权国家,在一个“他者”的场域下,认同何以被想象?跨国界球迷文化(transnational fandom)的兴起及其对自身文化的阐释、实践和想象,呈现出一种复杂的样貌。在当前的网络时代中,竞技体育——尤其是足球,能有效地将个人的行为与官方所推崇的价值观、道德期待“完美”地融合在一起。即在看似“民族国家”这一主体缺位的条件下,跨国界球迷与国家、社会、空间之间的互动值得更深入的评估和探究。本文将从“想象”这一视角,对中国的德迷(以网络贴吧“德国队吧”为主)进行人类学的分析,试图说明:“跨国界”研究并不能全然忽视“民族国家”这一要素,即经典的足球人类学理论将持续产生新的道德困境;但另一方面,在中国场域下的网络实践,自我与他者、尤其是与共同体间的互动过程将呈现一种新的关系型(relational)的变化。
英文摘要:
      What makes people become a community? How is the identity imagined when the identity crosses the boundaries of sovereign states, and enters the area of “the other”? The rise of transnational fandom, as well as the interpretation, practice and imagination of their own culture, are presented within a complicated appearance. In the present internet age, competitive sports, especially football, can effectively and “perfectly”combine individual behavior with official values and morality. Accordingly, the interaction between transnational fandom and the state, society, and space is worthy of further in-depth evaluation and exploration under conditions that the subject, i.e. the nation-state, seems to be absent. From the perspective of “imagination”, this article will give an anthropological analysis of the phenomenon of the self-identity of transnational football fandom and the construction of community. The reason is that the non-overlapping nature of space turns “imagination” into a analytic tool, especially when this article takes as its main sample those members of Chinese fandom who support the Germany National Team (hereafter, German fandom). This group of fans usually constructs its relationship with the team through watching, discussing or consuming on the internet platform, which is what makes “imagination” possible. In addition, the relationship between “imagination” and identity, between an individual and the group, is a classic topic in anthropology. The author places this analysis within the context of China, hoping to re-examine the relevancy and differences between locality and globalization. Through textual analysis of on-line posts, this article tries to explore the cultural representations of the “fandom community” from a more direct perspective. The article considers that the significance of analyzing transnational fandom lies in the fact that we can re-examine the anthropological construction of relationships within the sense of “the other” from the non specific locality of an internet community. When the boundary of the community and space no longer overlap, a new shift takes place within the concept of “self”, which is a clear idea in traditional anthropology, as is well the concept of “the other”. These need to be verified and interpreted. The identification, connection and interaction between “self” and “community” also become more complicated. On the one hand, the man-man relationship in the internet age is not necessarily constructed through a structural standard, and the process of the construction of a relationship is often shaped by the process of experience. On the other hand, the separation of the status of “self and the other” in western philosophy is challenged by the transnational context—the originally pure representation of local knowledge has shifted to a philosophy of “being together”. This, in turn, encourages the connection between man and man, between man and objects, and is dominated more by emotion. (Zhao, 2014, Journal of Guangxi University for Nationalities). The article asserts, through the anthropological analysis of the technologies of “imagination”, that the connection between self-identity and community construction has become possible within the transnational context. The attempt to explore a virtual ethnography of German fandom in this article makes both a macro analysis and micro description of real people, internet technology, and globalization. Classic anthropological theory can explain the identity of fandom within boundaries: the authority, media and so on, have created an imitated political body (such as German Chariot) which has been highly moralized, and has a strong feature of exclusion, and legalized the citizenship within the territory with a clear land boundaries. The logic of the zero-sum game within the concept of homogeneous space and time makes a discourse system of the modern nation-state possible. On the one hand, modern western rationality stresses internal cohesion, but, on the other, it also produces a series of separated “others”. However, it is difficult to directly apply the concept of “locality” to a non-spatial situation. Especially under a transnational context, it is very difficult to use this system of discourse to deconstruct behavioral practice beyond territorial boundaries. However, a simple application of the idea of identity and “imagination” within the so-called global concept will often adhere to a rational view of post-colonialism, and pure, reflective, cultural judgment due to an over emphasis on the separation of individuals under the guidance of modernity. It means that in the process when individuals are being structured, dominated, or even imagined strategically, they are still divided and intensified by power; the connection between individuals is broken; and the “intermedium” and “betweeness”, within the sense of “society”, are tacitly homogenized. We cannot structuralize the various identities of fandom according to an ideal type of “legal /resistance /planning”, or according to a standard classification of “tradition”, “consumption”, “popular”, and “unpopular”. The consequences of this behavior is that we will easily miss the possibility of finding other kinds of flowing, shifting, and unexpected identities interwoven together. Alternatively, even speaking more extremely, the morality of holism in the sense of modernity will screen any other form of moral order except individualization. The moral dilemmas of the German fan community make us realize that there may be a new way of connecting space with imagination. It can be a dynamic mechanism for the production of self, a reflection of morality; a kind of mechanism which is constructed on the basis of mutual connectivity in the sense of community, in which it can play strong role, bridging the gap between individuals, and integrating the general consciousness. When Chinese society in history and Chinese society at present are contextualized and analyzed, we can imagine the totally different forms of the concept of self and “the other” on Chinese cultural soil, i.e. an imagination which can constantly adjust the “self” according to a specific situation, forming a unique concept of balance with Chinese humanistic spirit, a kind of imagination which can freely combine space, and construct a new community together with individuals. When internet technologies shape this kind of imagination, communities with a common nature, to a various degrees, are produced unexpectedly, and these specific groups are led to act, perform, and interact tacitly according to a specific pathway. Football, owing to its unique competitive system, lets people constantly create and interpret the meaning of life between the unpredictable victories and failures. A comprehensive consideration of China in history and the specific time and space in the internet age lets us know that the relationships extended outside of individuals is not only a local and imagination, and is not just an imagination of holism with the idea of “all people belong to one family”. Transnational fandom produces a new combination of space and individuals through the “technology” of football and with the support of the internet. They, the fans, either via the individual or group, constantly create meaning, and also the constantly “imagined” with style of relationships, and, thus, finally construct a new community. The common idea of these small communities is not only the dream, desire or self-satisfaction of the individual, but also that of a “sociality” revealed by the individual and broader communities together. They will produce, intensify or even regenerate specific and concrete identities accompanied by different mediums (ways of living, products, or even by creating constantly changing ways of integrating man and technology).
查看全文   查看/发表评论  下载PDF阅读器
关闭

手机扫一扫看
分享按钮