文章摘要
和继全,赵秀云.纳西东巴文献的内部圈层论[J].民族学刊,2017,8(5):35-40, 105-108
纳西东巴文献的内部圈层论
An Exploration of the Different Spheres of Influences on Naxi Dongba Literature
  
DOI:10.3969/j.issn.1674-9391.2017.05.04
中文关键词: 纳西东巴文献  内部圈层  民族关系  文化共创
英文关键词: Naxi Dongba literature  spheres of influence  ethnic relations  co-creation of culture
基金项目:
作者单位
和继全 西南民族大学民族研究院 
赵秀云 西南民族大学期刊社 
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中文摘要:
      纳西东巴文献往往被标以唯一性和独特性的标签。东巴文献是其创造主体祭司们在各个时期不断丰富和发展的历史积淀,但从历史层次的角度来看,根本上是长期文化互动过程中和其它民族共创的结果。其内部圈层可分解为民间口诵文献的象形文转写、早期本教经文的东巴文翻译、本教藏语音读东巴文献、藏传佛教藏语音读东巴文献、其他民族文献译本等。以往我们在表述某一民族文化事项时,往往带有主观的惯性思维,即是单一群体独创或借鉴其他群体文化后再创造的结果。东巴文献的例子给我们的启示是,哪怕是一些具有唯一性的民族文化也可能是多民族共创的结果。通过对东巴文献内部圈层分析,找到文化共创的主体和客体,是客观认识文化源流和发展脉络的可靠途径。
英文摘要:
      Through a comprehensive investigation of Dongba literature, especially the ritual literature, and an interpretation of some special literary works with cross-linguistic characteristics, we suggest that Dongba literature can be understood as having derived from five different spheres of influences, including pictographic writings derived from oral texts, Dongba literature translated from early Bon texts, Dongba literature transliterated from Bon texts which keep its Tibetan pronunciation, Dongba literature transliterated from Tibetan Buddhist texts which keep their Tibetan pronunciation, and Dongba literature translated or transliterated from other ethnic languages. 1. Pictographic writings derived from oral texts Naxi Dongba religion, like many folk religions in Southwest China, depended mainly on oral literary traditions which existed before the creation of a written tradition. Pictographic writings derived from oral texts is the first sphere of influence on Dongba literature. Its contents mainly include the worship of heaven, ancestor worship and rituals for driving away evil and preventing disasters. This body of texts should be considered the most original, and their main characteristic is that Tibetan-loan words from Bon and Buddhism are rare. The pantheon is mainly related to the gods of heaven, earth and ancestors. The pantheon of the Bon religion, which takes Dongba shiluo as the main deity, has not yet appeared in these texts. 2. Dongba literature translated from early Bon texts Scholars believe that, during a certain historical period, the Dongba translated a large amount of Bon scriptures into Naxi Dongba literature. The inter-relationship between Tubo texts from Dunhuang and Dongba texts indicates that Dongba literature was influenced by the Bon religion. Some scholars consider that, in the Tang period, the Bon religion from the Tubo regime began to influence the native religion of the Naxi. This is especially found during the period of Trisong Detsen when the policy of “promoting Buddhism and destroying Bon” led many Bon masters to escape to Yunnan, Sichuan, and the adjacent areas of Kham and Tibet. During this period, early Naxi religion broadly absorbed Bon doctrine, and many Bon scriptures were translated. In addition to those scriptures used for worshipping the god of nature mentioned by J.F. Rock, the texts also include ritual texts for releasing the soul of Dongba shiluo, sending away substitutes, etc. The distinguishing characteristic of these texts is that they borrowed a large amount of Tibetan-loan words, and adopted many Bon deities, including Dongba shiluo, into the pantheon of the Dongba religion. This can be regarded as the second sphere of influence on Dongba literature. 3. Dongba literature transliterated from Bon texts which keeps its Tibetan pronunciation With regard to some Bon literature, the Dongba did not translate them into the Naxi language, but recorded their Tibetan pronunciation using the Dongba script, i.e. creating a Dongba literature that was pronounced using Tibetan. During the process of transliteration, they used special methods, including using Tibetan words, qieyin words (using two Dongba characters to indicate a pronunciation), etc. When discussing the influence of Bon religion on Dongba religion, He Zhiwu mentioned that “Among the classics of Dongba religion, there are scriptures which record Tibetan pronunciation using the Dongba script; we have already discovered more than 8 manuscripts of these kinds of scriptures — which should be direct loans from the Bon text.” We call this kind of Dongba scriptures “Naxi Dongba literature pronounced using Tibetan”. We have done a preliminary research on the quantity, usage, and characteristics of these texts. In addition to the early Bon literature written using the Dongba script and pronounced in Tibetan, we also discovered some Yongzhong Bon religious texts, including the Eight-Word Mantras, Fifteen-Words Mantras, and One Hundred Syllable Mantras. We consider that the third sphere of influence on Dongba literature is the Dongba literature transliterated from Bon texts which keep their Tibetan pronunciation. This also includes those Yongzhong Bon texts introduced into the Dongba religion during a later period. 4. Dongba literature which is transliterated from Tibetan Buddhist text which keeps its Tibetan pronunciation Since the Ming Dynasty, the Karma Kargyu school of Tibetan Buddhism developed in Lijiang, and greatly influenced the Naxi. Within Dongba scriptures and doctrines, the shadow of Tibetan Buddhism could be seen noticeable everywhere. At present, we have discovered some Dongba manuscripts which were transliterated from Tibetan Buddhist texts which kept their Tibetan pronunciation, including the guiyiwen (Text of Conversion), ji mahagala (worship Mahakala), etc. This indicates that the content of some Dongba texts which are pronounced using Tibetan are Tibetan Buddhist texts transliterated into the Dongba script. There is a typical case among the folk, “It is said that during the Republican Era, the Bangyou family of Bowan village was planting prayer flags. When the Dongba was chanting the scripture of ‘Planting Prayer Flags’, a scripture transliterated Tibetan pronunciation using Dongba script, a Tibetan Lhama from Nixi, who was sitting beside the Dongba, said that there were three more verses in this scripture compared with the Buddhist scripture he knew.” Generally speaking, among those Dongba texts pronounced using Tibetan, only a few have been discovered. Nonetheless, this can still be considered the fourth sphere of influence on Dongba literature. 5. Dongba literature translated from or transliterated using other ethnic languages In addition to the influence of Tibetan culture, we cannot ignore the influence of Han, Bai, and Lisu, etc., on the Naxi Dongba ancient manuscripts. When Li Lincan classified Dongba manuscripts, he classified other ethnic groups’ literature which were translated or transliterated into Dongba script as “other ethnic linguistic classics”. He further divided them into four categories, including those using the Tibetan language, Han language, Minjia language and Lisu language. During the long process of interaction among the different ethnic groups, for example, Han, Bai, and Lisu, the Naxi undoubtledly absorbed some cultural traits from these ethnic groups, and adopted them into Dongba literature. Li Lincan had classified a catalogue of “other ethnic linguistic classics”, and we discovered Han classics “yuxiaji•liuren shike” (a kind of divination book of the Han people). We believe that by conducting deep research on Dongba literature, there will be even more discoveries. In summary, Dongba literature integrates the uniqueness and peculiarities, and is a cultural trait which exhibits the strongest Naxi characteristics. However, if we interpret this from the perspective of the spheres of influence, we find that the origin of this unique ethnic culture is the result of long-term cultural interaction with other ethnic groups. In the past, when describing an ethnic cultural event, we subjectively used to think that it was created by a single group or recreated by taking reference from other groups’ cultures. The case of Dongba literature gives us a new idea, that even some unique ethnic cultures might be “co-created” through interaction with multi-ethnic groups. Finding the subject and object of cultural co-creation through an analysis of its spheres of influences is a reliable way to understand the paths of both cultural origins and development.
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