文章摘要
何 博,李 权.中缅跨境德昂族的历史记忆与国家认同[J].民族学刊,2017,8(5):47-54, 111-113
中缅跨境德昂族的历史记忆与国家认同
Historical Memory and National Identity of the Cross-Border De’ang People along the Sino-Myanmar Border Area
  
DOI:10.3969/j.issn.1674-9391.2017.05.06
中文关键词: 中缅跨境民族  德昂族  历史记忆
英文关键词: the Sino-Myanmar  cross-border ethnic people  De’ang ethnic group  historical memory
基金项目:
作者单位
何 博 云南财经大学马克思主义学院 
李 权 云南财经大学马克思主义学院 
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中文摘要:
      跨中缅两国国境线而居的德昂族在传统社会框架下为了本民族生存和发展建构了早期共同历史记忆。近代以来,中缅德昂族早期共同历史记忆出现了差异,究其原因,主要与现代国家确认、现代国际社会框架和自我建构相关。因此,早期历史记忆研究应该关注传统社会框架和自我建构的互动;历史记忆的当代重构应该关注现代国家、现代国际社会框架和自我建构三者的关系。国家认同差异并不妨碍中缅德昂族民心相通,德昂族将对“一带一路”发挥积极作用。
英文摘要:
      The De’ang ethnic group who straddle the border between China and Myanmar are the same ethnic group and share a common ethnic origin, similar culture and history. Throughout the long process of their historical development the Sino-Myanmar De’ang ethnic groups have similar memories of their early history. However, in modern times, especially since the 1970s, differences and divergences have appeared in both the memory and narratives of their early history. In order to reveal the inherent reasons of those differences, this article tries to explore systematically the process of change of early historical memory. On the one hand, this exploration makes great effort to display the integrity of the historical memory of the Sino-Myanmar De’ang ethnic group, and by doing so, expects to help further study of their history. On the other hand, this exploration can provide a perspective for the study of the common sentiments of the people living in the cross-border areas that form part of the “One Belt and One Road” initiative. I. The commonality of the early historical memory of the Sino-Myanmar De’ang ethnic group The Sino-Myanmar De’ang ethnic groups who live on both sides of the Chinese-Myanmar have constructed a common memory of their early history. This mainly includes: 1) taking tea as their common ancestor, and that they are the descendants of tea; 2) regarding Leighuang Mountain as their homeland and common area of origin; 3) having a common historical memory of their being forced to abandon their homeland because of war. The Sino-Myanmar De’ang’s construction of their early common historical memory depends on the social framework of the traditional society, and the mode of national governance. The blurring of national boundaries in traditional societies leaves enough room for common development, and an imaginary space in which the Sino-Myanmar De’ang ethnic group can construct historical memory by taking the national community as its center. This “commonality” of the early memory not only shows their common sense of national community, but also explains the underlying causes of their similar lifestyles today. II. The contemporary construction of the early historical memory and its divergence In modern times, especially since the 1970s, there have been different descriptions of the memory of their early common history. These differences focus on: 1) different memories of their origin and migration history; and 2) different reconstructions of major historical events in the history of their ethnic development. The reconstruction of the historical memories of the Sino-Myanmar ethnic groups has obvious characteristics drawn from the history of their respective countries. For example, the historical reconstruction of the De’ang ethnic group in Myanmar is closely related to the history of the main ethnic group in Myanmar, i.e.the Burmese nationality. The De’ang ethnic group in Myanmar claim that they came to Myanmar with the leadership of the King of Burma, and that they have made wonderful contributions to Burmese history. The De’ang ethnic group in China, on the other hand, constructs its historical memory based upon the historical development of the Chinese nation. For example, in recent years, they emphasized an exploration of the Jinchi kingdom, their relationship with other ethnic groups in China, and their contribution to the historical development of the Chinese nation. III. The close relationship between the vicissitudes of the historical memory of the De’ang and the changes of the social framework 1) In traditional society, the common historical memory of the Sino-Myanmar De’ang people is closely related to the traditional social framework, and is the result of interaction between traditional social framework and their reconstruction of self. 2) In modern society, the Sino-Myanmar De’ang people have been influenced by national identity, and, as such have gradually changed the reconstruction of their early historical memory. The influence of national identity on the reconstruction of the early historical memory of the Sino-Myanmar De’ang is most likely closely related with the changes within contemporary social structure, which, in turn, is the result of the interaction between contemporary social frameworks and the construction of self of the Sino-Myanmar De’ang people. 3) The shift from the commonality of historical memory of Sino-Myanmar De’ang in traditional society to the significant divergence since the modern times reflects the fact that traditional social structure has changed to a modern social structure, especially to a modern international relationship structure. This reconstruction of the early historical memory of the De’ang is the result of the interaction between domestic social structure, national social structure and the construction of self. The differences and divergences of Sino-Myanmar De’ang historical memory is closely related to changes in imaginary space, the status of ethnic relationships through time, and the way in which the state intervenes in ethnic problems within the specific international structure. In traditional society, the vague boundaries between countries leave a broad, flexible zone, which provided ample space for the survival and development of the Sino-Myanmar De’ang people. It also became the boundary for them to understand the space in which they could complete the reconstruction of their historical memory by taking the ethnic communality as the center. In modern society, the boundaries between countries are clear and specific, and the same ethnic unit is divided into different national units. The interaction among different ethnic groups inside a nation replaces the internal communication within one ethnic unit, and becomes the primary communication. Only by drawing themselves closer to the national history can they obtain a broader space for survival. Therefore, the historical memory of the Sino-Myanmar De’ang people has been reconstructed, and differences appear which are the result of their embracing the history of their respective countries. In traditional society, ethnic conflicts are one of the basic characteristics of ethnic relationships. In such a situation, only by getting closer and uniting together, can the Sino-Myanmar De’ang ensure the survival and development of the ethnic units. The early historical memory of the Sino-Myanmar De’ang has similar features because of their common national consciousness. While in modern society, countries like China and Myanmar have recognized the status of the equal ethnic groups in their respective countries, the contemporary construction of the historical memory of the Sino-Myanmar De’ang ethnic group differs because of the intervention of their respective countries. The changes of international social frameworks in different times is another way to explain the change of the historical memory of Sino-Myanmar De’ang people. No matter what is said, the Sino-Myanmar cross-border De’ang people are the same community which shares a common historical origin, culture and ethnic consciousness. They have made strong contributions to local economy and social communication. Today the Sino-Myanmar cross-border De’ang people will continue to provide a shared space for the “One Belt and One Road” Initiative. The “One Belt and One Road” Initiative will bring a new life for humanity.
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