文章摘要
陶 砥,杨力源.论习近平“中华民族”观的四重属性[J].民族学刊,2017,8(5):63-68, 117-119
论习近平“中华民族”观的四重属性
Discussions on the Four Attributes of Xi Jinping’s Concept of the “Chinese Nation”
  
DOI:10.3969/j.issn.1674-9391.2017.05.08
中文关键词: 习近平  中华民族  中国共产党  民族国家
英文关键词: Xi Jinping  the Chinese Nation  CPC  nation-state
基金项目:
作者单位
陶 砥 武汉大学马克思主义学院 
杨力源 武汉大学马克思主义学院 
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中文摘要:
      党的十八大以来,以习近平为核心的党中央深化了对“中华民族”的认识,高度重视中华民族共同体建设。围绕“中华民族”展开了一系列论述,这些论述中蕴含的习近平“中华民族”观具有四重属性,即政治文化性、历史必然性、现实合理性、未来可塑性。明确习近平“中华民族”观的特性可以为新的历史阶段,党的民族工作提供重要依据,有利于完善党的民族理论政策,为实现“两个一百年”的宏伟奋斗目标凝聚力量。
英文摘要:
      Xi Jinping’s concept of the “Chinese Nation” is implied in his discussions on ethnic work. An exploration of its characteristics can provide an important basis for the party’s ethnic work in the new historical stage; is conducive for improving the CPC’s ethnic theory and policy; and can solidify the entire nation to realize the great “Two Centenary Goal”. Ⅰ. Political culture attribute: the unity of political and cultural attributes The concept of “nation” is an imported word. In the western context, its original intention illustrates a very strong political attribute. It is often associated with the state, and constitutes the concept of “nation-state”. After the first Opium War, in order to get rid itself of the national crisis, those Chinese people with insight introduced the western concept of “nation”. They hoped to integrate the various ethnic groups of China into a modern nation so as together to resist foreign aggression and realize self-determination. The founding of the PRC marks the founding of the “Chinese nation-state”. The prosperity of the country, the rejuvenation of the nation, and the prosperity of the people are the common aspirations of the Chinese people at home and abroad. The state-building of the PRC is a strong backup for the great rejuvenation of the Chinese nation; and the construction and development history of the Chinese nation provides strong support for the operation of the national policy and system. China is the only ancient country in the world whose civilization has not been interrupted. The formation and development of the Chinese nation is a history of cultural development, and the cultural attribute is the most striking feature of the Chinese nation community. When the western concept of “nation” was introduced to China, both the academic and political circles went through a process of “rigidly copying” the use of the word to “Sinicizing” it. In this process, the most obvious feature was to give the word “nation” a meaning from both a historical and cultural aspect. In this sense, the meaning of the word “nation” is similar to that of the traditional Chinese word zuqun (ethnic group) and zu (nationality). Ⅱ. Historical inevitability: the historical origin of a unified multi-ethic country China has always been a unified multi-ethnic country through historical dynasties; peoples of all ethnic groups have together written a glorious history of the Chinese nation. After the outbreak of the Opium War in 1840, in the face of national crisis, various ethnic groups in China accelerated the integration of their identity into the national community. In the process of “western learning spreads to the East”, those Chinese people with insight introduced the western concept of “nation” into China. They committed themselves to integrate all ethnic groups of China into a unified modern nation in order to save the country. It is precisely in this sense that the Chinese people of all ethnic groups struggled together under the leadership of the CPC,and accomplished the historical task of anti-imperialism and anti-feudalism. Various ethnic groups have consciously merged into a “Chinese nation” and jointly established a unified new China. Ⅲ. Realistic rationality: the national condition of the “unity in diversity” pattern Generally speaking, the CPC uses the concept of the “Chinese nation” in two dimensions: 1) It emphasizes the “unity”, referring to the political national community formed from the combination of different historical and cultural ethnic groups in China. As Xi Jinping pointed out, seeing from the perspective of history, China has been always a unified multi-ethnic country, which is an important historical treasure of China; the new China is founded by all ethnic groups in China; and the formation and development of the Chinese nation is the result of the joint efforts of the people of all ethnic groups. 2) It emphasizes the “diversity”, referring to all ethnic groups in the land of China. The pattern of “one within another, and no one can separate from each other” is the core characteristics of the “Chinese nation’s unity in diversity”. There is a dialectical unity between “unity” and “diversities” of the Chinese nation. Ⅳ. Future plasticity: strengthening the construction of the community of the Chinese nation The People’s Republic of China has been established for nearly 70 years. The holism of the Chinese nation community, being composed of 56 ethnic groups, has been continuously strengthened. However, the historical and cultural differences among the various ethnic groups will not be eliminated in a short period of time. Some differences are even endowed with political and legal connotations, which highlights the ethnic problems in historical and cultural aspects within the aspect of social politics. At the same time, the construction of the Chinese nation community still faces the “provocations” of separatist forces in different ethnic groups. Therefore, the task of building the Chinese nation is still arduous. The construction of the Chinese nation refers to the process during which the CPC and the state, under the premise of respecting the fact that China has been a unified multi-ethnic country since ancient times, and that “unity in diversity” is the realistic pattern of the Chinese nation and under the premise of taking references of and absorb the positive factors of “nation construction” in other countries, and then, use public power to promote internal exchanges, communications and integration among all ethnic groups of the Chinese nation through the necessary policy and institutional arrangements. In this process, we must pay attention to the following three aspects: 1) To strengthen the construction of the Chinese nation, we must respect the objective laws of ethnic integration and development, and cannot artificially and forcibly eliminate the differences existing among different ethnic groups and integrate them into one ethnic group. 2) Instead of blindly following the experience of other countries, while strengthening the construction of the Chinese nation, we should go our own way based on the premise of absorbing the positive factors of the western countries in their nation construction. 3) When the CPC and the government use public power to carry out policy and institutional arrangements, it should always focus on the theme of strengthening the cohesion of the Chinese nation.
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